Rxn # Functional Group Name and Structure Reaction Type Conditions Product(s) Comments Examples
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1 All that contains C, H, O Combustion Oxygen (O2) is always a reactant
Limited by heat
CO2 + H2O Must Balance these equations, using molecular formula in equations.

2 Hydrocarbons
3 Alcohols,
4 Aldehydes, ketones
Aldehydes / ketones are constitutional isomers
Esters, carboxylic acids
Carboxylic acids / esters are constitutional isomers
6 Alkenes,
Addition H2O in acid (H+) 1o, 2o, or 3o alcohol Hydration reactions follow Markonikoff’s Rule – rich get richer
Reverse of dehydration of alcohol reaction (Rxn #10)
7 H2 alkane Hydration rxn
8 HCl, HBr, HI Alkyl halide Hydrohalogenation reaction follows Markonikoff’s Rule
9 Cl2, Br2, I2 Alkyl di-halide Halogenation reaction
10 Alcohol – hydroxyl
Elimination Acid Catalyzed (H+) with heat
There must be a H on an adjacent C otherwise there will be no rxn
Most substituted alkene

Sayseff’s Rule – Poor get poorer
C with the most C – to – C bonds is the most likely to lose the H

11 Alkyl Halide Base Catatalyzed (OH-)
An alsohol also acts as part of the catalyst
12 Alkane Substitution A Pt (s) catalyst and UV light are required Alkyl halide The relative amounts of the various products depend on the proportion of the two reactants used.
13 Alcohol Alcohol reacts with a hydrogen halide
14 Alkyl halide Alkyl halide reacts with a hydroxide ion Alcohol  
15 Alkyl halide Allkyl halide reacts with ammonia, 1o or 2o amine 1o, 2o or 3o amine  
16 1o alcohols
Oxidation [O] conditions
Some OA: CrO3, H2CRO4, K2Cr2O7
1o gives aldehydes first, then carboxylic acids Reverse of reduction of aldehydes (Rx#15)
17 2o alcohols,
R1-CH(OH) – R2
2o alcohols gives ketones
18 3o alcohols,
R1-C(R2)(OH) – R2
3o alcohols do not undergo oxidation
19 Aldehydes,
R1 - CHO
[O] conditions
Some OA: CrO3, H2CRO4, K2Cr2O7
Tollens (Ag+)
NAD+ (biological)
Aldehydes give carboxylic acids  
20 Ketones,
R1 - C(O) - R2
Ketones do not undergo oxidation
21 Alkyne
Reduction [H]
Reducing agent
Reduction of Alkyne give Alkene
Reduction of Alkene give Alkane
22 Aldehyes Reduction of aldehyes produces a
1o alcohol
23 Ketone Reduction of Ketones produces a
2o alcohol
24 Carboxylic Acids Reduction of carboxylic acid produces first an aldehyes and then a 1o alcohol  
25 Alcohol [H]
Common catalyst: Al2O3
Alcohols will produce alkene  

Carboxylic Acids,

Neutralization Reaction with any base,
Usually OH- or any amine
Carboxylate ion
Carboxylate ion + ammonium ion
27 Condensation -
Reaction of any carboxylic acid with any alcohol, catalyzed by heat and acid ester Catalyzed be acid.
Anhydride + alcohol gives ester product without acid catalysis
28 Condensation -
Amide production
Acid + amine + heat Rxn with 1o or 2o gives an amide
Rxn with 3o does not give an amide, only neutralization product
Same as amine formation desciribed below
29 Ester,
R1 - C(O) - O - R2
Hydrolysis Ester + Acid or base + heat
Reverse of esterification rxn
Acid catalysis produces carboxylic acid and alcohol
Base catalysis produces carboxylate ion and alcohol
Reverse of ester formation (Rxn #22)

R1 - NH2
R2 - NH
R3 - N

Neutralization Reacts with any acid:
inorganic or organic

Ammonium ion + anion
(carboxylate ion if acid is carboxylic acid)

31 Condensation -
Amide formation
Reaction with Carboxylic acid
Requires Heat Otherwise only neutralization occurs
Ammonia + carboylic acid gives primary amine  
32 Reaction with 1o amine + carboxylic acid gives 2o amide
33 Rxn with 2o amine + carboylic acid gives 3o amide
34 Rxn with 3o amine + carboxylic acid does not give amide, only neutralization product
35 Amides
R - C = O
Hydrolysis Acid or base catalyzed Acid Catalyzed -
Carboxylic acid + ammonium ion / amine
Reverse of amine formation
36 Base Catalyzed -
carboxylate ion+ amine